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高考英语焦点单词一定少不了subject,首先是它是个高频词,其次是词性多,三是形容词和动词的用法和意义比力特殊,和汉语的差异比力大。一、subject的词性和释义subject有三个词性和相应的释义,包罗名词、形容词和动词,简朴展示如下: 1.名词(NOUN)1.1. 主题;题目;话题;题材;问题(a person or thing that is being discussed, described, or dealt with) 1.2. 学科;科目;课程(an area of knowledge studied in a school, college, etc.) 1.3. 接受试验者;实验工具(a person or thing being used to study sth., especially in an experiment) 1.4. (尤指君主制国家的)国民,臣民(a person who has the right to belong to a particular country, especially one with a king or queen) 1.5. 主语(语法(grammar))(a noun phrase functioning as one of the main components of a clause, being the element about which the rest of the clause is predicated.) 2. 形容词(ADJECTIVE)2.1. 可能受…影响的;易遭受…的(likely to be affected by sth., especially sth. bad) 2.2.取决于;视…而定(depending on sth. in order to be completed or agreed) 2.3.受…支配;听从于(under the authority of sth./sb.)3. 动词(VERB)3.1. 使…经受;使…遭受(cause or force to undergo (a particular experience of form of treatment)) 3.2. 使…臣服;使…顺从(bring (a person or country) under one's control or jurisdiction, typically by using force)二、subject的用法和例句及翻译作为一个焦点词,subject有三个词性和相应的释义,从使用频率来看,作为名词表现主题和科目等的意义,作为形容词表现受…支配或听从于等的意义,作为动词表现压服的意义比力常见。有关例句和翻译如下: 1.名词:1.1.主题;题目;话题;题材;问题例句:1.1.1. His choice of subject matter has been regarded as lowbrow.人们一直认为他选择的主题是浅薄的。1.1.2. The show challenges four contestants to speak on a specific subject for 60 seconds without “hesitation, repetition or deviation.”四个参赛选手需要在演出中“不犹豫、不重复、不跑题”地就一个详细题目演讲60秒钟,这是一项挑战。


1.1.3. I try to steer the conversation to other subjects, but it seems like it helps him to talk about it, and he’s so very, very sad all the time now.我只管把话题转到其它方面,但看起来这反倒让他继续这个话题,他一直显得很是很是伤心。1.1.4. Fifthly, the currency had always been a highly sensitive subject requiring the utmost caution in handling.第五,钱币一直都是很是敏感的问题,需要极其审慎地处置惩罚。1.2. 学科;科目;课程例句:1.2.1. They did not approach their subject solely as a matter of 'pure' theory.他们并没有把这一学科仅仅看成一门“纯”理论来看待。

1.2. 2. The introductory courses - which will be in subjects such as astronomy, philosophy, art history and more - will be transmitted via video from UD’s Newark campus and streamed to the students’ high schools.导论课——包罗航天、哲学、艺术史等课程——将在特拉华大学纽瓦克校区录制视频,然后通过流媒体传送到学生们所在的高中。2. 形容词2.1可能受…影响的;易遭受…的例句:Prices may be subject to alteration due to international market situations.价钱可能会因国际市场情况而变更。2.2.取决于;视…而定例句:It remains subject to approval by courts and authorities in the three countries, Airbus said in a statement.空客在一份声明中说,这仍然有待三个国家的法院和行政治理部门的批准。

2.3.受…支配;听从于例句:2.3.1. Individuals on the flights would be subject to screening, health observations and monitoring requirements.航班上的每小我私家都要按要求举行筛查、医疗视察和监测。2.3.2. Airplanes are the third-largest source of transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions and the largest not subject to greenhouse gas emissions standards.飞机是与交通相关的温室气体排放的第三大泉源,同时也是最大的不受温室气体排放尺度制约的泉源。3. 动词例句:3.1. 使…经受;使…遭受3.1.1. The defense lawyers claimed that the prisoners had been subjected to cruel and degrading treatment. 辩护状师声称囚犯遭到了荼毒和侮辱。

3.1.2. Nelson said that white schoolmates regularly subjected him to racial slurs, both during and outside of school, and that a teacher humiliated him by comparing him to a monkey during class.纳尔逊说白人同学经常对他举行种族辱骂,校内外都是如此,另有个老师在课堂上把他看成猴子举行侮辱。3.2. 使…遵从;使…顺从例句:3.2.1. Yet in 2016, the legislature criminalized it, subjecting violators to felony charges.然而,2016年,立法机关把这种行为定为犯罪,对违反者以重罪举行起诉。3.2.2. However, like any new product entering the food chain, GM foods must be subjected to careful testing.然而,像任何进入食物链的新产物一样,转基因食品必须要举行仔细的检测。3.2.3. It’s important to remember that once your adjustment-of-status application is pending, you will not be subjected to random deportation unless you commit a crime.重要的是要记着,一旦你的身份调整申请处于待定状态,你将不会被随意驱逐出境,除非犯罪。

三、词汇释义、语义辨析与句子翻译以上例句中,作为形容词和动词的用法和意义比力常见,但由于和汉语的表达方式差距比力大,尤其是从翻译的角度看,很难找到比力一致的相对应的汉语词语,也就比力难以明白和使用,因此也就作为一个比力典型隧道的英语学习难点和考点泛起在英语考试资料中。那么,如何破解类似的难点和考点呢? 首先,要认真研读英语释义。例如,subject作为动词的一个英语释义是cause or force to undergo (a particular experience of form of treatment),那么关于这个释义的明白关键要看undergo所包罗的意义,而由于undergo含有履历unpleasant事件的意义,因此可以确定汉语应该使用类似“欺压”的对应词来明白。

subject作为动词的另一个英语释义是bring (a person or country) under one's control or jurisdiction, typically by using force),其中的关键词是jurisdiction,即汉语的司法统领,所以在解读含有这一意义的subject时就要遐想到和执法法例相关的行为、行动和状态。subject作为动词的两个释义虽然都含有迫使的意义,但前者主要的是表现人为的迫使,后者主要的是表现基于司法的迫使。


在Commercial use authorizations also will be subject to the longer processing time.这个句子中,commercial use authorizations(商业使用授权)和processing time(受理时间)的关系是因果关系,因此,可以把句子中的形容词subject看成likely to be affected by sth., especially sth. bad的意义来明白,而不能明白为其它释义,如,depending on sth. in order to be completed or agreed或under the authority of sth./sb.。第三、要多做翻译训练,多做英汉差异的对比。例如,Commercial use authorizations also will be subject to the longer processing time.可以有多种翻译方法:1. 商业使用授权也将受到更长的受理时间的影响。

2. 商业使用授权同时取决于受理时间的是非。3. 受理时间的增加也将影响商业使用授权。

4. 由于受理时间的增加商业使用授权同时也将受影响。总之,作为一种学习方法,翻译训练的目的是为了更准确地明白词汇的语义和语法关系,尤其是其中包罗的逻辑关系。







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